Literature review Essay

Youthfulness has always been an attraction, a perception of vibrancy and dynamism in every stage of a man’s life. This so-called “Fountain of Youth” in each individual is reflected in his or her lifestyle; their disposition towards other people in the society; their interaction in their working environment, most especially the quality of the output of their work; and their perception of life – that age does not hamper one to continue being young. Dossey (2002:12-16) For this group of youthful old individuals, what is vital is the quality of life and not the quantity of life. It is not whether they have lived long enough, but it is whether they have lived in attainment of their goals and aspirations, with contentment and happiness. This is what really matters at the end of the day. Dossey (2002:12-16) With all these debate over the significance of “extending” this particular stage in life, science and technology played a crucial role in addressing these matters. Experiments have been conducted on the possibility of extending the life span of people with the intake of certain medicines or even through surgery. In this attempt to reach immortality, biological breakthrough in cell division and regeneration are being processed in order to ascertain the supply for this demand. Science and technology have paved way to the people’s mindset that indeed, the possibility of a longer and more youthful life can be available. Dossey (2002:12-16) From this vantage point, the emergence of biomedicine has blossomed and has demonstrated the various ways in which it can influence the social aspect of an individual, aside from the physical well-being of the person. Bios have always been regarded as the most effective and at the same time, the most cost-efficient amongst all types of remedy or medication. Before we proceed with the technical aspects of Bios in medicine or in cosmetics, it is important that the definition of Biologicals are also given proper attention in this paper. What is Biologicals? Biologicals or what we call the Biotechnology-derived products that require tedious work in preparation and simplification of the raw materials in order to ensure the quality-control is above or within the approved standards as legislated. Tsang (2003:367-370) As per attached herein, you can see the various product types of biologicals: Source: Tsang (2003:367-370) Given the sensitivity of the issue, it is necessary that Biotechnology-derived products are governed by a strong legislative body to maintain the standards that will enable the products to remain safe to the end-users, to us, humans. It was then defined that these products are products which contain a biological substance, the substance possessing the following: that it is extracted from or sourced from a biological substance, and that there is a need for that substance to undergo several tests to ascertain the measures of safety and reliability of the product; that it is not hazardous to health. Requirements have been set by the authorities-in-charge so that liabilities against the general public are minimized. At the same time, these regulatory compliances will also serve as educating tools for the end-users that they are aware of the products they purchase. This is most especially true when the health, such is the appearance, is at risk. An example of biologicals that are prevalent in this day and age is the use of Bio-cosmetics. Bio-cosmetics In order to meet the objective of the paper which is to give enlightenment on the status of the bio-cosmetic industry, it is necessary that we are all in equal footing in the definitions of the terms being used in this paper. Bio-cosmetics is primarily made of two different components incorporated to produce another element or component. In this case, we have “bio” and, we also have “cosmetics”. Bio, from the Greek combining form: bios, which means “life”. Meanwhile, cosmetics pertain to the use for beautifying, cleansing or protecting, especially of the skin, nails, hair, or other parts of the human body, or of other species required for exhibition. Webster (2006:450) Furthermore, “bio” is a composition of natural elements – raw materials that are unadulterated and constitutes the purest ingredients of Mother Nature. It is in these virgin materials that the most complicated and highly-processed and most sought-after medicines are derived from. One need not go far, as these are simply in our lush environment that we can acquire these Biologicals. Such form is the Bio-Cosmetics. From the word itself, these are cosmetics that utilize the most biologicals. Cosmetics have come a long way from its origins in the early ancient period. Grolier (2005: 188). Cosmetics, mainly used for changing and enhancing the appearance of the face, skin and/or hair of the human being, is also being used as an adjunct to religious rituals, wherein men and women in the ancient days adorn themselves with accessories and cosmetics. From the many archaeological studies of the early days, it was found that men and women knew of how to prepare pigments and blend them with greasy substances, which are then considered as cosmetics. Analysis of these prehistoric pigments has revealed that as many as 17 colors have been used for these purposes. The most commonly used were a white made from white lead, chalk or gypsum; a black from charcoal or manganese ores; and red, orange and yellow. During the ancient world, the Sumerians, Babylonians, Hebrews and Egyptians employed similar preparations of cosmetics for similar purposes as follows: ceremonial, medicinal and ornamental. The Ancient Middle Eastern civilizations lavished mostly on the eyes, in part as a form of protection. Grolier (2005: 188). Henna was used to dye the hair and the fingernails, the palms of the hand and the soles of the feet. Scents and unguents are restricted at first in the rituals of mummification. In Egypt, rouges, whitening powders, abrasives for cleaning the teeth, bath oils and lipsticks were used daily by both sexes from the upper classes. Almond, olive, sesame oils, thyme and oregano, frankincense and myrrh, saffron, rosewater, and chypre formed the foundation of basic concoctions that we re eventually used throughout the world. A few more examples of how cosmetics sprung in various countries are discussed herein: In India, cosmetics were significant in Indian women in fulfilling their duty to always appear alluring to their lover or mate, such as is specified under the Kama Sutra. Women then were advised to learn the arts of tattooing. Cosmetics also served as an emblem in determining the caste or class rank in the society. Up till now, many Indian women still use cosmetics in the ancient way: eyelids are tinted with an antimony-based dye, the faces and arms are stained yellow with saffron powder, and the soles of the feet are reddened with henna. Grolier (2005: 188). In Greece and Rome, the classical Greek only permitted the use of few cosmetics, although they made use of imported raw materials. Greek women however, dye their hair regularly during times of mourning, and they sometimes lightened it with pomade or colored powders. Meanwhile, the Romans scorned cosmetics as effete. However, during the time of the empire, cosmetics began to be desirable in defining symbols of status and wealth. It should be noted however, that most of these popular cosmetics were, in fact, poisonous, especially the white lead commonly used as face powder. Grolier (2005: 188). In Medieval Europe, cosmetics were for a time restricted to the males of certain courts and to high-born ladies and courtesans. The contemporary criteria for facial makeup in the Western world is perhaps a continuation of medieval beauty, which is required that a woman’s skin be as white as the lily, and that her cheeks as red as the rose. Preparations for achieving this ideal were available to the rich; commoners had to make do with the wheat-flour powder and beet-juice rouge. To cap this history notes of the birth of cosmetics, France emerged as the leader in developing the art of makeup, and both men and women of rank used face powder, hair powder of saffron or flower pollen, and skin lotions. On the other hand, the Italians, particularly the Venetians, had become the major producers and purveyors of cosmetic preparations. Venetian ceruse, a skin whitener, was considered superior to all others and was in great demand, despite the knowledge that the white lead it contained could ruin the complexion and cause baldness, and if used in the long run, even death. Grolier (2005: 188-191). The peak of cosmetic use was reached in 18th century Europe, especially in book report help England and France, where both sexes attempted to reach an almost totally artificial appearance. In England, this was the age of macaroni, the young fop whose clothing, powdered wig, rouge, and red lips, were supposedly inspired by Italian fashion. By the 1880’s, advances in technology – especially in printing – and the advent of advertising opened way for a new era in cosmetic history: the age of testimonial advertisements. Respectable and beautiful women began to appear in print ads enabling and encouraging more women to use cosmetics. Grolier (2005: 188-191).


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